Chapter 14

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1.
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What are the 3 primary types of Tectonic Forces?
2.
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____ is the displacement of rocks along a fracture
3.
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The inclination of rock layer is called the....
4.
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A reverse fault represent Compressional forces
5.
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A thrust fault or Over-thrust represents Tensional Forces
6.
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A strike a slip fault represents which force?
7.
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A Normal Fault represents Tensional forces
8.
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Tectonic Forces that push two areas of crustal rocks together tend to shorten and thicken the crust. This describes _____
9.
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Folding, Which is a bending or wrinkling of rock layers, occurs when compressional forces are applied to rocks that are ductile(bendable), as opposed to brittle. Related to Compressional Forces
10.
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The rocks lying at great depths under the crust are under intense pressure and temperature(plastic)
These rock layers are bendable, and fold (folding)
11.
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The five types of folds consist of....
12.
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Compressional: Rocks lying near the surface are more brittle, and too rigid to bend, and instead of folding, these rock layers break and mve relative to one another along a fault (faulting)
13.
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Upfolds are called ______ and down folds are called ______
14.
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Asymmetrical folded rocks may become overturned and perhaps so compressed that the fold lies horizontally: These are known as _______ folds
15.
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Tensional tectonic forces pull in opposite directions in a way that stretches and thins the impacted part of the crust
16.
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_____ Forces causes crust to be broken into ____ blocks that are separated by a ____ fault, rather than substantially stretching or bending plastically
17.
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Tensional Forces often create parallel normal faults across a region
18.
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Typical Landforms associated with tensional Tectonic Forces are...
19.
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Each block that slid downward between two normal faults, or that remained in place while blocks on either side slid upward along the faults is called a ______
20.
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A fault block that moved relatively upward between two normal faults- that is, it actually moved up or remained in place while adjacent blocks slid downward is a ___________
21.
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Sliding action; Dip-Slip faults: Vertical Movements; Normal and reverse faults; Strike-slip (lateral) faults: Horizontal movement... these describe what?
22.
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Shearing Tectonic Forces slide parts of Earth's Crust past each other
23.
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Endogenic Processes refers to: external (on earth's surface) geomorphic processes
24.
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____ is the difference between highest and lowest point of a landscape or land form; often used to describe landscapes or landforms
25.
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An Endogenic Processes is internal (with in the Earth) geomorphic processes
26.
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Endogenic processes work to increase relief while Exogenic processes minimize relief
27.
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Weathering- physical fragmentation and chemical decomposition of rocks and minerals at or near the Earth's Surface... This is.......
28.
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True or False: Landscapes typically experience slow rates of change due to exogenic and/or endogenic processes
29.
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Plutonism refers to the cooling of magma to form intrusive igneous rocks that may be eventually exposed
30.
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Volcanism is extrusion of subsurface rock matter to the exterior this refers to the ________ Igneous processes
31.
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Igneous intrusions = _______. These are categorized by size and shape. ex: Stock, Batholith, laccolith, sill, dike, volcanic neck
32.
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____ is wall-like structures formed when intrusive igneous rocks cuts vertically into surrounding rock; Often appear as vertical walls when exposed. (this is an example of a pluton)
33.
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A volcanic neck - tall rock spires that once fed a volcano situated above; erosion over a long time period removes surrounding material, leaving the resistant neck. This is an example of what
34.
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_____ forms when molten magma flows horizontally between rock layers and mushroom-like shapes are formed due to location of a magma pipe or stem below.
35.
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____- horizontal sheets of intrusive igneous rock ( an example of this is Palisades along Hudson River, New York)
36.
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Volcanic eruptions are infrequent natural phenomena; they can lead to rapid change in short time periods in relatively stable environments(punctuated equilibrium) the 2 main types are:
37.
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Which best describes Effusive
38.
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Viscous means flow resistant; less viscous means flows willingly
39.
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Pyroclastic material; pieces of volcanic rock, including cinders and ash, solidified from molten material erupted into the air.. This is also referred to to
40.
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Pyroclastic ____- airborne density current of hot gasses and rock fragments unleashed by an explosive volcanic eruption
41.
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Volcanic landforms depend upon explosiveness of the eruption. Which is not one of the six major volcanic landforms:
Laval flows, Shield Volcanoes, Pahoehoe, Cinder Cones, Composite Cones, Plug Domes, Calderas
42.
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lava flow are: Erupted molten rock matter that flowed over the landscape and solidified; Source: volcanoes, fractures Basalitc lava, which has low viscocity is most common _____ type
43.
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_____- Extremely fluid, outer layer solidifies and interior still flow; ropy surface
44.
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___ - More Viscous, flows less easily; sharp-edged jagged blocky surface
45.
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Pahoehoe is explosive or effusive?
46.
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Aa is less Viscous than Pahoehoe
47.
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Gently sloping, dome-shaped cone; Extremely hot lava; very few explosive eruptions; extremely hot lava can flow long distances before solidifying, creating their signature shape.. this describes ___ volcanoes
48.
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____ - smallest type of volcano; associated with gas build-up, leading to explosive eruptions; Built up from pyroclastic material; Creates steep straight sides with a large crater in the center.
49.
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Composite cones can be Explosive or Effusive
50.
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_______ ____ are classic, concave volcano shape with a gentle slope near the base and a steeper slope near the top. These are often accompanied by pyroclastic flows, and are responsible for extremely violent, hazardous explosions.
51.
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Plug domes are extremely viscous
52.
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________ are created when extremely viscous lava is pushed into the vents of a volcanic cone and doesn't flow out. ; these have jagged outcrops
53.
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Plug domes are not dangerous; not much pressure builds up in the domes.
54.
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Calderas are large depressions located in the place of a former summit; They are created when an extreme eruption expels so much material that a depression is left. An example is Crater Lake, Oregon
55.
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Yellow Stone is an example of a big ______
56.
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A(n) ______- is a series of vibrations or shock waves set in motion by sudden movement along faults.
57.
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Earthquake _______ is the measurement representing an earthquake's size in terms of energy released & Earthquake _______- A measure of the impact of an earthquake on humans and their built environment
58.
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Earthquakes indicate that our Earth is dynamic, they are evidence of tectonic activity
59.
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Earthquake Vibrations are created when stress accumulates along a fault line is released. (energy is released as the stress is relieved by the movement of the crust).
60.
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Epicenter - point within Earth's crust or upper mantle where an earthquake originated.
61.
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The point on Earth's surface directly above the focus of an earth quake is...
62.
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Seismic waves- traveling waves of energy released during an earthquake or other shock; Seismic waves loose energy as they travel, so the most energy, and the strongest shock, is usually felt at the ______
63.
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Seismic Body waves travel through the ____ (interior) of the Earth; arrive before surface waves
64.
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Body Waves: P Waves are the ___ to arrive; able to travel through, solids, liquids, and gases (this is the rumbling we hear); back and forth motion
65.
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S Waves arrive ____ P waves; only travels through solids; up-and-down or side-to-side motion
66.
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Surface waves travel through Earth's crust; responsible for most damage; Long waves- fastest surface wave; side to side motion; Rayleigh waves rolling, up-and-down motion similar to surface water waves; responsible for most of the shaking we feel.