Text Structures

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1.
1 point
On the river banks of the Nile River, home to some crocodiles, there are many kinds of birds, sometimes called crocodile birds because they are always hopping around crocodiles. The big crocodiles and the birds are useful to each other for several reasons. The birds eat flies and leeches that they find on the crocodiles’ skin and mouths. In this way, the birds get a good mean and the crocodiles get rid of the leeches and flies. Sometimes an enemy frightens the birds who scream and fly away. As a result of the noise, the birds give the crocodiles a warning of danger.
2.
1 point
In most parts of the world there are not as many crocodiles as there used to be. This is a problem because crocodiles are becoming endangered and also crocodile are necessary to the balance of nature. Many crocodiles have died because people dried up the swamps and marshes where the crocodiles live. Poachers have also contributed to the dilemma as crocodiles have been desired for their strong, smooth, leathery skins. In order to preserve these mighty creatures, people must take care of the crocodiles’ environment and help put a stop to the needless shooting of these animals.
3.
1 point
Chimpanzees and humans are alike in many ways. A baby chimp laughs when its mother tickles it. After chimpanzees fight, they kiss and make up. When one chimpanzee comforts another, it gives it a hug or pat on the back. There are, of course, many ways that chimpanzees and humans are different. Chimpanzees are smaller and stronger than humans. An adult male chimpanzee stands three or four feet tall and weighs about 100 pounds. But a chimpanzee can lift more weight than a man who is six feet tall.
4.
1 point
All crocodilians are reptiles with long snouts, long tails, four short legs, tough skin, and sharp teeth. Members of the crocodilian family include alligators, crocodiles, caimans, and gavials. Crocodilians live in warm weather throughout the year and they spend part of their time in the water and part of their time on land. Almost all crocodilians grow to be very large, with the largest more than twenty feet long. There are two kinds of alligators, 14 kinds of crocodiles, eight kinds of caimans, and one kind of gavial.
5.
1 point
A chimpanzee’s body is made for climbing and swinging in the trees. First, it uses its long arms to reach a branch. Next, with its flexible hands and feet, it grabs and hooks on to the branch. Finally, it swings from that branch to another branch of tree.
6.
1 point
It is fun to read about chimpanzees. All wild chimpanzees live in Africa. They live mostly in thick rain forests and in woodlands. There are two types, or species, of chimpanzees—the common chimpanzee and the bonobo, also known as the pygmy chimpanzee.
7.
1 point
Chimps live in groups and like each other a lot, but sometimes they fight. Because they don’t want to stay angry at each other after a fight, they make up by holding a hand out to the other and kissing. They show they are sorry with pats and hugs. Then the anger goes away.
8.
1 point
Wild chimpanzees are rapidly disappearing. Some people are trying to solve this problem. Otherwise, chimpanzees may one day exist only in zoos. People are trying to save the rain forests and woodlands where the chimps live from being cut down. It will take many people working together to solve this problem.
9.
1 point
Alligators and crocodiles, along with their relatives the caimans and the gavials, are very much alike. These crocodilians are reptiles with long snouts, long tails, four short legs, tough skin, and sharp teeth. There are some differences, however. Gavials have the longest snout and the most teeth. Some people say that alligators and crocodiles differ in the shape of their snouts and the positioning of their teeth. Zookeepers say that crocodiles move faster than alligators and have nastier dispositions.
10.
1 point
Recently, scientists have gained an understanding of a crocodile’s reproductive activity. Crocodiles mate in the water, where the buoyancy keeps them from crushing each other. Prior to mating, there are stylized postures, jumping, submerged bubble blowing, and snout contact. After mating, hard‐shelled eggs are laid in a nest, in a hole scooped in the sand. When it is time to hatch, the infant crocodiles begin a loud chirping sound that leads the female to the nest, which she excavates. Finally, when all the babies are accounted for, the mother crocodile transports them to the shallow water where they will remain under adult protection for weeks or months.